Category Archives: Uncategorized

Demography in World History classroom

Demography and geography are not quite destiny, though close.

1. This is a terrible time to be American higher ed thought leader unless you are in the 1% of highly financed higher ed factories with prestige in engineering and healthcare. If Arizona State can accumulate 100,000 plus online students, imagine what Stanford can do when it decides it needs this revenue stream.

2. Given how important immigration has always been to American prosperity, it is amazing how little Americans actually talk about it. Without immigration, American demography would have collapsed decades ago. And while the labor crisis now is complicated (as is inflation), it is also interesting to see the dominant narrative twisting into whichever imaginary direction (can’t find workers because welfare is paying too much for The Poor to buy meth and be couch potatoes ….) except to understand the centrality of immigration in American labor.

3. Would be lovely to get a human wellness-centered study on what it is about this capitalist modernity we have imposed on the globe, that no matter the religion or race or history, a nation hits certain macroeconomic indicators and the birthrate collapses. A kind of paradox. Rather than the usual media-talking head blame women blame religion blame government blame this blame that, I just want to know why, and if humans having fewer or no children are overall happier or not happier. 19.8.2022

© Taiwan in World History 台灣與世界歷史. This site grants open access for educational and not-for-profit use. Maps and illustrations are borrowed under educational and not-for-profit fair use. If you are the rights holder and prefer to not have your work shared, please email TaiwanWorldHistory (at) Gmail (dot) com and the content will be removed.

Advertisement

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

金融時報:北京施壓未果 台灣本週再迎美國會訪團 Geostrategery and Taiwan Republic 台灣国 classrooms.

(中央社記者陳韻聿倫敦21日專電)英國「金融時報」報導,無視北京施壓,除了22日有日本跨黨派議員訪問台灣,當週週末台灣還將迎接一個美國國會訪問團,這也是本月第3個美國國會訪台團。https://www.cna.com.tw/news/aipl/202208210202.aspx

The third US Congressional delegation of this month to visit Taiwan Republic will arrive this week, along with a delegation from the Japanese Diet (reportedly with a focus on national security). Also, delegations from legislatures of Canada, the UK, Germany, Denmark, Lithuania, and the EU have also announced plans to visit Taiwan Republic soon. Eventually, western democracies must remove the self-imposed ban on high-level cabinet executives visiting Taiwan, particularly national security officials and military leaders, Taiwan’s redefining of the “status quo” as premised on its democratic sovereignty matches well with democratically elected legislators visiting. 22.8.2022

© Taiwan in World History 台灣與世界歷史. This site grants open access for educational and not-for-profit use. Maps and illustrations are borrowed under educational and not-for-profit fair use. If you are the rights holder and prefer to not have your work shared, please email TaiwanWorldHistory (at) Gmail (dot) com and the content will be removed.

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

“U.S. Joins South Korea, Australia, Japan, Canada for Missile Defense Exercise Following RIMPAC” USNI: Geostrategery and world history classrooms.

“Naval forces for the United States, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Australia and Canada wrapped up the Pacific Dragon 2022 exercise on Monday … The biennial multinational air and missile defense drills began on Aug. 5 in Hawaii at the Pacific Missile Range Facility Barking Sands (PMRF) and off the coast of Kauai … This was the first time Australia and Canada took part in the exercises, as previous iterations only included the U.S., Japan and the Republic of Korea.”

[https://news.usni.org/2022/08/16/u-s-joins-south-korea-australia-japan-canada-for-missile-defense-exercise-following-rimpac]

Fascinating combination and timing — coupled with the US-Indonesian military maneuver and the Japanese Navy visiting Fiji. If you think this missile defense maneuver took place without the massive Taiwanese-American PAVE-PAWs radar, and Taiwanese Patriot Pac 3s involved, then I have many bridges to sell at a discount. Of the many many unintended consequences from dictators. During the 1996 Chinese communist missile tantrum, the American military discovered that from 1979-1996 they had neglected and isolated the Taiwanese military so much that in a crisis, these quasi-allied forces would be unable to function together. Billions in arms sales and many decades of nonpartisan efforts from the US later, the 2022 Chinese communist missile tantrum met a very different US-Taiwan-Japan military alliance. The Russian invasion of Ukraine, coupled with Chinese communist human rights violations in East Turkestan and Hong Kong, will accelerate the push to formalize the military alliance. Beijing is warning American warships away from the Taiwan Strait — the big news this year could possibly be Japanese missile defense destroyers sailing alongside the US Navy near Taiwan, or, into the Taiwan Strait. 18.8.2022

© Taiwan in World History 台灣與世界歷史. This site grants open access for educational and not-for-profit use. Maps and illustrations are borrowed under educational and not-for-profit fair use. If you are the rights holder and prefer to not have your work shared, please email TaiwanWorldHistory (at) Gmail (dot) com and the content will be removed.

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

“Navy won’t back away from Taiwan in wake of Chinese belligerence, White House says,” Stars and Stripes: Geostrategery and world history classrooms

“ABOARD THE USS RONALD REAGAN, Philippine Sea – The U.S. 7th Fleet will send more aircraft and warships past Taiwan in the coming weeks, a response to China’s military exercises that have surrounded the island starting Thursday, according to the White House … The Ronald Reagan Carrier Strike Group will also remain in the region to “monitor the situation” as Beijing continues its exercises in the wake of U.S. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi’s mid-week stop in Taiwan, national security spokesman John Kirby said at a White House press conference Thursday … China that day began a series of air force and naval exercises, including 11 ballistic missiles fired toward Taiwan, five of which came down in Japan’s economic exclusion zone east of the island democracy.

“We condemn these actions, which are irresponsible and at odds with our longstanding goal of maintaining peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait and in the region,” Kirby said. “China has chosen to overreact and use the speaker’s visit as a pretext to increase provocative military activity in and around the Taiwan Strait.” https://www.stripes.com/branches/navy/2022-08-05/taiwan-navy-ronald-reagan-carrier-6886874.html

The paradox of the 2022 Chinese communist missile crisis is that the ultranationalist and divisive dictator Xi is accelerating the timetable for Japanese and American military officers to return to Taiwan Republic. For the broader global and world history level forces at work see my previous posts on the characteristics of America as a global maritime empire. Also little noted in western press: The American general in charge of US forces in South Korea recently stated US forces in Korea respond to a Taiwan crisis rapidly. One would have already guessed so but a very unusual public statement. Last year during the vaccine crisis in Taiwan manufactured by the China CCP-KMT three American senators made an unusual direct flight from a US military base in ROK, on a gigantic C-17, directly to Songshan Air Force Base, Taipei. Very rapid shifting landscape for sure, with decades of rules and practices being shattered by all sides. It may be time to question the use of the phrase “status quo.” Or at least redefine what we all mean by it. 7.8.2022

© Taiwan in World History 台灣與世界歷史. This site grants open access for educational and not-for-profit use. Maps and illustrations are borrowed under educational and not-for-profit fair use. If you are the rights holder and prefer to not have your work shared, please email TaiwanWorldHistory (at) Gmail (dot) com and the content will be removed.

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

It was never about Speaker Pelosi or Taiwan Republic – the 2022 Chinese communist missile crisis is about the rise and decline of great powers World history and geostrategery classrooms

The superficial, episodic narrative focuses on Speaker Pelosi’s visit to Taiwan Republic and the subsequent Chinese communist belligerence. This has always primarily been about the end of Globalization 1.0, and the partial decoupling between the American-led democratic economies and autocratic economies. This is also about dictator Xi reexamining just how much global connectivity and acceptance of the US-led global order pose a direct threat to his dictatorship.

I am certain American and Japanese military officers will soon return to Taiwan Republic because of world history level forces converging:

  1. The decoupling of the Chinese communist and American economy and the end of Globalization 1.0. The era where capital recognizes no political borders and geoeconomic policies do not consider national security-vital national interests are over.
  2. The developmental bottleneck and dictatorship challenging the economic crisis in communist China.
  3. The nature of the global maritime empire created and maintained by the US Navy I have written about. 4. The trickiest – relative decline of American hegemon, and the incomplete rise of Putin’s Russia and Xi’s communist China.

Throughout world history, we have had many examples of the decline and rise of great powers. Never before have we had a true global hegemon – the US, and its relative decline and the incomplete rise of would-be successors. The closest historical precedence is the UK to the US in 1945, and I have always suspected the American narrative on that transition is far more benign than how the UK remembers it. That precedence had two powers sort of speaking the same language, with relatively similar political and political-economic systems. And even then it took a horrific world war and a decades-long Cold War for the transition from one power to another to complete. We are sailing uncharted waters – little to no historical precedence to call on for lessons.

Japanese and American military officers will return to Taiwan because the ultranationalist and divisive hardliner Xi has demonstrated with this crisis he has manufactured that war is not theoretical. It is also clear that any conflict will not be confined by the Chinese communists just to Taiwan. What the Putin invasion of Ukraine has demonstrated is that dictators do not negotiate – and they never abide by treaties and agreements. Remember how many meetings western leaders had with Putin before the invasion? And the common illusion that somehow Russian belligerence is confined to Ukraine alone, and Chinese communist ambitions are confined to Taiwan Republic and nowhere else, is, even if we merely take Putin and Xi at their own words, absolutely mistaken. Once DC foreign policy establishment transitions from the old mentality – focusing on not provoking China, believing that there is a way to for a win-win compromise with Beijing and Moscow – into this new reality, both Tokyo and DC will realize that it is more dangerous to their vital national interests to not have a military presence in Taiwan.

Few examples: using this present Chinese communist missile crisis as a model for how a war against China will be engaged. There will be high intensity, high speed, multidimensional coordination of multinational forces in the air, in space, on land, at sea, and submerged – with homeland defense, cyber defense, logistics, civil defense – coordination of information warfare, banking, central banks, energy, food, medical, public health, etc. Where are the Taiwanese surface-to-air and surface-to-sea missile corridors? How should the American and Japanese forces coordinate? In what ways would the three nations plus others coordinate to maximize their impact on the Chinese communist forces? Without Japanese and American officers in Taiwan ahead of time, such coordination is impossible. Not only will officers from Japan and America return to Taiwan to act as liaisons and advisors – and they could well take the gentler AIT ‘recently/temporarily retired’ model. I think small to midsized Taiwanese military units will rotate to Japan and Guam/Hawaii for training with American and Japanese units, and vice versa.

In the grand scheme of things, we have entered the phase where because of the global maritime empire imperative, and because of the dangers posed by a declining hegemon and an incomplete rising power, planning for a war against China is no longer theoretical. Taiwan is a focus, but this is an Indo-Pacific struggle – between global democracies and global autocracies. How to deter-prevent a Chinese communist invasion, while retooling the global economic order to minimize democracies funding autocracies, will be the focus of this global struggle for many decades to come. 8.8.2022

© Taiwan in World History 台灣與世界歷史. This site grants open access for educational and not-for-profit use. Maps and illustrations are borrowed under educational and not-for-profit fair use. If you are the rights holder and prefer to not have your work shared, please email TaiwanWorldHistory (at) Gmail (dot) com and the content will be removed.

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

Geostrategery classroom: US to take part in military exercise near India’s disputed border with China

Geostrategery classroom: US to take part in military exercise near India’s disputed border with China

“(CNN)The United States is to take part in a joint military exercise with India less than 100 kilometers (62 miles) from the South Asian country’s disputed border with China. The military drills will be held in mid-October at an altitude of 10,000 feet in Auli in the Indian state of Uttarakhand and will focus on high-altitude warfare training, according to a senior Indian Army officer with knowledge of the matter. Auli is about 95 kilometers from the Line of Actual Control (LAC), an inhospitable piece of land where the disputed border between India and China is roughly demarcated. The drills will take place as part of the 18th edition of an annual joint exercise known as “Yudh Abhyas” — or “War Practice”.”

https://edition.cnn.com/2022/08/06/india/india-us-military-exercise-line-of-actual-control-china-intl-hnk/index.html

Important to understand this report alongside recent US Forces RoK General’s comments on his forces’ ability to respond to Chinese communist aggression against the Taiwan Republic and its allies, and public statements on Taiwan’s defense and the Chinese communists’ belligerence from the admiral in charge of the Indo-Pacific command, and the admiral in charge of the US Seventh Fleet.

Study the Indo-Pacific map and see US strategic bombers from Diego Garcia and communist China’s soft underbelly; US carriers in the Indian Ocean; US naval base in Singapore choking off petroleum shipment to the Chinese communists; US-Japan-Australia AUKUS nucular submarines in the South and East Seas; strategic bombers and submarines in Guam and the West Pacific; US forces in Okinawa/Japan and RoK able to strike Chinese communist naval, amphibious units and remove Chinese command and control, supplies, logistics lines from the Sino-Soviet border all the way down to the Vietnam-China border.

Then notice just in one week: US-South Korea talks on additional THAAD. US-Japan and Taiwan Republic strengthening missile defense and military collaboration. US-Taiwan-Japan naval and coast guard units in the South Pacific. US-led multinational maneuvers in Indonesia. US-Japan-Korea (and Taiwan?) missile defense maneuvers. Reports that the US is strengthening missile defense at Guam. The return of French and German and UK military forces into the Indo-Pacific.

The historical irony created by divisive hardliner dictator Putin and ultra-ethnonationalist controversial dictator Xi is in their choosing policies that produce the exact opposite results to their stated goals. Putin’s invasion of Ukraine has enhanced Ukrainian national identity while making it possible for Finland and Sweden to join NATO. Xi and the Chinese communists in their 1996 missile tantrum accelerated the US-Taiwan-Japan military alliance, and the 2022 Chinese communist missile tantrum will only further solidify this military alliance. 8.8.2022

© Taiwan in World History 台灣與世界歷史. This site grants open access for educational and not-for-profit use. Maps and illustrations are borrowed under educational and not-for-profit fair use. If you are the rights holder and prefer to not have your work shared, please email TaiwanWorldHistory (at) Gmail (dot) com and the content will be removed.

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

Geostrategery, Geoeconomics, and world history classrooms: It’s the Economy, stupid

“《TAIPEI TIMES》US seeks to boost trade with Taiwan. BOLSTERING TIES: The US is ‘developing an ambitious road map for trade negotiations’ with Taiwan and plans to continue transits through the Taiwan Strait, a US official said. AFP and Reuters, WASHINGTON and TAIPEI. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs yesterday expressed “sincere gratitude” toward the US for taking “concrete actions” to maintain security and peace in the Taiwan Strait and the region, after the White House on Friday said it would boost trade with Taiwan and insist on the right of air and sea passage in the area in response to China’s “provocative” behavior. A new trade plan is to be unveiled within days, while US forces are to transit the Taiwan Strait in the next few weeks, US National Security Council Indo-Pacific Coordinator Kurt Campbell told reporters in a teleconference.”

https://news.ltn.com.tw/news/focus/breakingnews/4024663

Even though I have little interest in partisan domestic politics in the US and in the Taiwan Republic, I have repeatedly warned that chaos in American democracy carries grave danger for global democracies – particularly for vulnerable frontline democracies like Ukraine, Baltic States, and the Taiwan Republic. A weakened and chaotic United States makes a military attack on Ukraine and Taiwan more tempting to Moscow and Beijing. But it also carries other public policy risks, such as the inability of the US to think strategically and to lead a pro-democracy global economic order.

The world history level big picture: the core of this modern struggle between democracies and autocracies, the “Third World War,” is geoeconomics. Globalization 1.0, circa 1980 to 2019, entailed self-defeating deregulation and tax cuts for the wealthy multinationals led by the US, defunding of these democracies, and opening their door to global strategic corruption. In the aggregate, trillions in profits were made, but creating highly unstable polities with economic inequalities, all creating the precondition for populist extremisms and democratic instability. This Globalization 1.0 has also transferred trillions in funds and technological know-how to modern autocracies – Putin’s regime, and Xi’s Chinese communist war machine. This is the first time in world history where the leading superpower, the US and its allies, voluntarily funded and shared technological know-how with their enemies. For decades!

Compared with the flashy military scaremongering headlines, trade negotiations are boring. Yet these trade talks between the US and the Taiwan Republic, and eventually a broader regional free and fair trade pact between the US and its democratic allies, are as important to Taiwanese, American, and regional security as missile defense. Hence we return to the idea that stable and healthy American democracy with two pro-democracy parties is vital to Taiwanese and world democracy security. An American democracy that is confident and outward-facing, not paranoid and isolationist, is key to actively creating a pro-democracy and pro-US national interest, free and fair trade Globalization 2.0. A global economic system where trade and economic activities are tied to their service to democratic consolidation and human rights, and minimizing the phenomenon of the democracies directly funding autocracies such as the Chinese communists. A global democratic supply chain that enhances the prosperity and relative equality of democracies will also promote healthier, less acrimonious, non-extremists democracies.

On the Taiwan Republic specifically. Ever since 1945 the consensus between the China CCP and the China KMT is to turn the “Taiwan Question” into a domestic problem – i.e., a civil war between the two China political parties. So anything that the US, Japan, and NATO can do to internationalize Taiwan – particularly in trade, science, education, space, agriculture, media, and arts – the more Taiwan’s security is enhanced.

© Taiwan in World History 台灣與世界歷史. This site grants open access for educational and not-for-profit use. Maps and illustrations are borrowed under educational and not-for-profit fair use. If you are the rights holder and prefer to not have your work shared, please email TaiwanWorldHistory (at) Gmail (dot) com and the content will be removed.

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

Geostrategery and geoeconomics classrooms: U.S. considers crackdown on memory chip makers in China.

Aircraft carriers and counterstrikes missiles matter a lot. But this is the key battlespace in the war between the US and its allies and communist China. The US is trying to lead a four-nation microchip coalition — US, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, watch this space closely. Also, as a multidimensional war, we will require decades of thoughtful, positive policy domestically — on education, and jobs, manufacturing, and democratic supply chains, immigration reforms, etc. This is why I focus on strategic corruption and the health of American democracy. No weapons, FBI agents, nor laws ensuring technology no longer flows to China will help if American democracy falls to armed fascist militiamen. 10.8.2022

https://www.reuters.com/technology/us-considers-crackdown-memory-chip-makers-china-2022-08-01/

© Taiwan in World History 台灣與世界歷史. This site grants open access for educational and not-for-profit use. Maps and illustrations are borrowed under educational and not-for-profit fair use. If you are the rights holder and prefer to not have your work shared, please email TaiwanWorldHistory (at) Gmail (dot) com and the content will be removed.

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

Geostrategery and journalism classrooms: Information warfare and stop being useful idiots.

Geostrategery and journalism classrooms. Information warfare and stop being useful idiots. I pay so much attention to information warfare because the major bad actors — Putin’s kleptocracy, American fascists, and the Chinese communists — employ similar information warfare tactics, and western journalism, academia, and other liberal democratic institutions are slow to respond — and in many cases, become force multipliers for enemies of democracy.

Case in point, the Chinese communist narrative amplified by western journalists and academia, that Speaker Pelosi’s visit to Taiwan Republic is “provocative.” And to be cookie-cutter about it, the US congressional delegation that just landed in Taipei is “also provocative.” Not only have US and global legislative delegations always visited Taiwan. If this narrative is accurate, which is more provocative — these administrative 737s flying into Taipei? Or, this understudied moment from June 2021 — during the height of the vaccine crisis manufactured by the China CCP and China KMT, three US senators flew directly from a US Air Force base in South Korea to Taiwan’s Songshan Air Force Base — on a gigantic C-17 strategic transport.

Wasn’t the message the US delivered to Beijing and the region clear enough? The US military may land in Taipei anytime it wishes. What carried three senators in 2021 could easily ferry hundreds of main battle tanks and thousands of soldiers. In the realm of messages deemed ‘provocative’ to the hypersensitive Chinese communists, if we follow Chinese communist and western media and academia narrative, which ought to have provoked a barbaric Chinese communist military response?

Big picture/important lessons — compare western media and academia amplifying Moscow, fascists, and Beijing disinformation and propaganda, and understand that the crisis of western liberal democracy is not that our enemies are that strong, but that we are muddle-headed and ineffective in protecting our own democratic values. 16.8.2022

© Taiwan in World History 台灣與世界歷史. This site grants open access for educational and not-for-profit use. Maps and illustrations are borrowed under educational and not-for-profit fair use. If you are the rights holder and prefer to not have your work shared, please email TaiwanWorldHistory (at) Gmail (dot) com and the content will be removed.

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

Taiwan Republic 台灣国 and world history classrooms: 1996 v. 2022 Chinese communist missile crisis – President Tsai and evolving Taiwanese national identity. 中華民囯台灣七十三年。主權互不隸屬。反共保台。

Because Taiwan Republic only appears in the western press in relation to geostrategery, “Chinese communist tensions,” and computer microchips, most English language analyses of Taiwan have been filtered through American and Chinese imperialist lenses. One of the greatest peaceful democratic revolutions engineered by the democratically elected president of Taiwan Dr. Tsai (LSE, Ph.D.) is to move from Taiwan Republic’s founding father President Lee Teng-hui’s formulation “RoC [in] Taiwan 中華民囯在台灣” to “RoC [as] Taiwan 中華民囯台灣” – and to have this formulation accepted by the leading world powers of US, Japan, and NATO – and accepted as a solid governing majority in Taiwan.

The 1996 Chinese communist missile crisis occurred on the eve of Taiwan’s first democratic presidential election – President Lee led Taiwan from the era of China KMT foreign dictatorship to Taiwanese democracy. Dr. Lee had to balance between the new, fragile democratic era and his role as the inheritor of CCK’s China KMT dictatorial party-state while facing Chinese communist belligerence and muddle-headed US policy.

In contrast, the 2022 Chinese communist missile crisis – though the Chinese military is stronger – has occurred in a very different environment. Since 1996 Taiwan’s democracy has peacefully transferred power between political parties twice – DPP to China KMT; China KMT back to DPP. More significant: Dr. Tsai is the first democratically elected president wherein during her second term her level of support has remained above fifty percent.

The impressive global and domestic re-engineering President Tsai has accomplished is this. During her October 10, 2021 speech she demarcated the differences between the “status quo” by the China CCP and the China KMT – one China and Taiwan is subjugated by China; versus the Lee-Tsai formulation, where the status quo is defined as RoC Taiwan for the last 73 years, and the boundaries between PRC and RoC Taiwan are that neither entity has claims of sovereignty over the other. Even more important, Taiwan RoC, RoC Taiwan, or Taiwan Republic, the key notion offered by President Tsai is democratic sovereignty – only the 23 million citizens living in Taiwan have the right to democratically choose their own government and chart their own future.

This Tsai formulation, RoC Taiwan 73 years, is a modernized version of the Lee Special State to State. The big difference is, unlike Lee’s earlier attempt, the Tsai formulation was not rejected by the major world powers of the US, Japan, and NATO. President Tsai then followed through on this major October 10th policy speech with a speech at the CCK Museum where she politically separated the younger dictator Chiang from his father dictator Chiang Kai-shek – endorsing CCK’s principle of “Anti-communism, protecting Taiwan” as a part of the “RoC Taiwan 73 years democratic sovereignty.” Another important step is to solidify a stable domestic democratic majority. From the October 10, 2021 speech to the CCK Museum speech, President Tsai has balanced historical memory, democratic consolidation, and compromises in national identity, with great power geostrategery.

The most remarkable manifestation of this national identity re-engineering from President Tsai is her convincing pan-green supporters to embrace RoC Taiwan, the flag, and the national military. As a young college student in the American midwest, I remember reading “outside the dictatorship party” 黨外 anti-China KMT/pro-Taiwan independence magazines, and the Taiwan military is conflated as the China KMT military – the enforcers of the dictatorship. In the 1980s it was not uncommon for these writers to advocate against the US selling arms to Taiwan, because this was seen by them to be selling arms to the China KMT dictatorship. So to see, during the 2022 Chinese communist missile crisis, so many pan blue-red China KMT supporters attack the Taiwanese military, and the pan-green DPP supporters show the RoC flag and support the military – a seismic, foundational national revolution. Will have an impact on Taiwanese democracy, regional order, and the US Indo-Pacific geostrategery for decades to come. Missiles and jet fighters and submarines are paramount to Taiwan’s national security. A stable, peaceful, governing majority in Taiwanese national identity focusing on democracy is equally important to Taiwanese national security and stability in the Indo-Pacific. 16.8.2022

© Taiwan in World History 台灣與世界歷史. This site grants open access for educational and not-for-profit use. Maps and illustrations are borrowed under educational and not-for-profit fair use. If you are the rights holder and prefer to not have your work shared, please email TaiwanWorldHistory (at) Gmail (dot) com and the content will be removed.

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized